卢旺达的启示

日内瓦——刚刚从一场残酷内战中恢复、仍跻身世界最贫困国家之列的卢旺达究竟是怎样为十几岁的花季少女提供比G-8国家更有效的防癌保护?只用了短短一年时间,卢旺达就报告93%以上的少女接种了人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)疫苗——HPV病毒是宫颈癌最主要的致病元凶。全球最富有国家的疫苗接种率虽然不尽相同,但某些地区还不到30%。

其实,世界上最富国家接种率不尽人意没有什么奇怪,尤其考虑到没有实现接种的人口分布。现有证据表明这些女孩大都处在社会经济底层,往往来自没有医疗保障的少数民族。这意味着风险最高的群体却没有得到保护。

这样的状况其实由来已久,而且也与这种每两分钟夺走一条生命的可怕疾病在全球的分布状况相符:那些最需要保护的人却最得不到保护。在每年死于宫颈癌的275,000名少女和成年女性中,88%生活在发展中国家,这些国家的死亡率有时比法、意、美等国高出20倍以上。这不仅因为没有现成的疫苗,也因为这些国家的女性鲜有机会接受筛查和治疗。因为缺乏预防措施,一旦患病她们就别无选择。

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