Wally Gobetz/Flickr

Séquençage du génome d’un vampire

NEW HAVEN – La Trypanosomiase humaines africaine (THA) – ou la maladie du sommeil – est depuis longtemps un fléau pour les populations africaines subsahariennes. Cette maladie parasitaire est souvent mortelle lorsqu’elle n’est pas soignée. Son traitement est complexe et nécessite un personnel médical ayant des compétences particulières, un personnel qui fait défaut dans les régions infectées. Le parasite vecteur de l’infection – Trypanosoma brucei gambiense en Afrique centrale et de l’Ouest et T. b. rhodiense en Afrique de l’Est – est transmis par la piqûre de la mouche tsé-tsé (Glossina morsitans morsitans).

Au début du XXe siècle, des épidémies de THA ont décimé les populations de plusieurs régions d’Afrique. Le dépistage et le traitement systématiques de millions de personnes ont réduit l’incidence de la transmission dans les années 1930, mais le relâchement de la surveillance a permis la résurgence de la THA dans les années 1950 et 1960, pour atteindre des niveaux épidémiques dans les années 1990. Une campagne de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé est parvenue à endiguer la maladie en 2008, avec environ 10.000 nouveaux cas chaque année. Mais des millions de personnes sont susceptibles d’être contaminées.

Il est clair que la mouche tsé-tsé, ou glossine, constitue un grave danger dans des régions où les populations peuvent le moins se permettre ou accéder à un traitement. La trypanosomiase africaine animale, ou nagana, est causée par les parasites Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax et T. brucei – tous transmis par la mouche tsé-tsé.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now