Daten teilen und über sie herrschen

BOSTON – Fast jeder von uns hinterlässt einen digitalen Fußabdruck – die Spur der so genannten „passiven Daten“, die durch jede Online-Interaktion hinterlassen wird – wie durch das Abrufen gekennzeichneter Inhalte sozialer Medien oder die Durchführung jeglicher digitaler Transaktion wie den Einkäufen mit Kreditkarte. Vor ein paar Sekunden haben Sie vielleicht schon durch das Klicken auf eine Verknüpfung zum Lesen dieses Artikels passive Daten erzeugt.

Solche Daten werden, wie der Name schon andeutet, nicht bewusst erzeugt, sondern sind Nebenprodukte unserer täglichen technologischen Existenz. Daher werden diese Informationen – und ihr monetärer Wert – vom durchschnittlichen Internetnutzer oft nicht bemerkt.

Unternehmen aber ist das Potenzial passiver Daten sehr wohl bewusst. Sie erkennen, dass solche Informationen wie Rohmaterial gesammelt und auf viele unterschiedliche Arten verwendet werden können. Durch die Analyse der Browser-Historie von Nutzern können Firmen beispielsweise vorhersagen, auf welche Art von Werbung sie reagieren oder welche Produkte sie kaufen. Sogar Gesundheitsorganisationen könnten die Kaufmuster einer lokalen Gemeinschaft beispielsweise dazu verwenden, einen Grippeausbruch vorherzusagen.

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