Desarrollo autofinanciado

NUEVA YORK – Una característica notable del sistema financiero internacional en la última década ha sido la rápida e importante acumulación de reservas extranjeras por parte de los países en desarrollo. Las reservas extranjeras mundiales se triplicaron de 2.1 billones de dólares en diciembre de 2001 a un nivel sin precedentes de 6.5 billones de dólares a principios de 2008, según datos del FMI.

Los países en desarrollo en su conjunto representaron más del 80 por ciento de la acumulación global de reservas en este período, y su nivel actual de reservas se aproxima a los 5 billones de dólares. La mitad de este volumen se concentra en los países en desarrollo de Asia, pero América Latina y África también han estado acumulando activos internacionales a un ritmo notable. Este conjunto de reservas rebasa las necesidades inmediatas de liquidez de los países en desarrollo, lo que ha conducido a una creciente creación y expansión de fondos de riqueza soberana, que tienen un nivel adicional de activos de más de 3 billones de dólares.

El aumento sin precedentes de las reservas extranjeras de los países en desarrollo se debe tanto a sus superávit de cuenta corriente como a los grandes flujos netos de capital. Prácticamente todas las reservas de los países en desarrollo se invierten en activos de los países desarrollados, lo que ha generado un aumento neto en las transferencias de recursos del mundo en desarrollo al mundo desarrollado que, según los cálculos del Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales de la ONU, llegaron a 720 mil millones de dólares nada más en 2007.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/ZJ2wXnN/es;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now