Dean Rohrer

个人与城市

发自北京——我们这个时代最大的事件是什么?虽然每个年代的侧重点各有不同,但如果用世纪为单位来衡量的话,那么人类的城市化肯定是一个有力的候选项。现在全世界已经有超过一半的人口居住在城市,而1800年时只有不到3%。预计到2025年,仅中国一国就将拥有15座人口超过2500万的“超级城市”。那么那些社会批评家们的忧虑又是有道理的吗?在大城市中生活的人们是否将遭遇那种相互疏离的原子化孤独?

诚然,城市无法提供乡村或者小城镇中特有的那种浓郁的社区感,但它却孕育着另一种不同的社区形式。人们经常为自己所在的城市感到自豪,并想方设法培育自身特有的市民文化。

城市自豪感这种东西拥有悠久的历史。在古代,雅典人用自己城市的民主气质来定义自己,而斯巴达人则以本城的军事纪律和强大实力为荣。当然,如今的城市区域已经变得巨大,分散以及多元化,因此如果说一座城市拥有一种足以影响其居民集体生活的精神气质,那未免会令人生疑了。

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