Выбирая наших детей

МЕЛЬБУРН. В апреле парламент Германии установил ограничения на использование генетической диагностики. Станет ли новый немецкий закон моделью для подражания в других странах, по мере того как мы пытаемся решить этические вопросы, проистекающие из нашей растущей осведомленности о человеческой генетике?

Некоторые пункты закона Германии основываются на широко разделяемых принципах уважения к индивидуальной автономии и конфиденциальности. Никого нельзя протестировать без его или ее согласия. Ни работодатели, ни страховые компании не могут потребовать генетического тестирования. Каждому человеку гарантируется право знать – быть информированным о результатах любого генетического теста в отношении себя, – а также право выбора жизни в неведении того, что генетический тест может сказать о его будущем. Запрещено дискриминировать или клеймить кого бы то ни было на основе генетических характеристик людей.

Какими бы желанными не выглядели эти условия, они могут возложить тяжелые затраты на немецкие компании. Если страховым компаниям за пределами Германии будет разрешено запрашивать генетические тесты, а немецким компаниям это будет запрещено, то люди, которые знают, что у них генетические диагнозы, сокращающие жизнь, будут получать страховки на жизнь в немецких страховых компаниях. Тогда эти компании начнут выплачивать больше страховок за преждевременную смерть, чем их конкуренты. Чтобы компенсировать эти затраты, они должны будут увеличить страховые взносы, делая себя неконкурентными.

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