Das Streben nach Souveränität in Europa und im Irak

Zwei unterschiedliche Versuche einer ,,Nationenbildung" stehen momentan im Mittelpunkt der weltweiten Aufmerksamkeit. Der amerikanische Kampf im Irak ein lebensfähiges Gemeinwesen zu etablieren und das ehrgeizige Projekt der EU aus Europa eine echte ,,Union" zu machen. Obwohl die beiden Projekte in vielerlei Hinsicht sehr unterschiedlich sind, zeichnet sich bei beiden ein bedrohliches,,Demokratiedefizit" ab. Warum ist das so und was muss dagegen unternommen werden?

Souveräne Regime bedürfen einer politischen Identität. Um das zu verstehen, sind zunächst ein paar Überlegungen auf der Basis von Rousseaus Theorien anzustellen. Jean-Jacques Rousseau war jenes widersprüchliche Genie, das als erstes die grundlegenden Motive der Modernität, von Demokratie bis zur Rechtsgültigkeit, mit all ihren gegensätzlichen Anforderungen artikulierte. Rousseau ist ein großartiger Denker und die Befolgung seiner Ratschläge immer desaströs.

Durch die ersten modernen, demokratischen Revolutionen wurde die Macht von den Monarchen in die Hände der ,,Nation" oder ,,des Volkes" gelegt. Dieser Machttransfer machte aber die Schaffung einer neuen Art von kollektivem Gefüge notwendig, das gemeinsam entscheiden und handeln konnte und dem man - nach Rousseau - einen ,,Willen" zuordnen konnte. Diese neue Einheit bedarf eines starken Zusammenhaltes, denn Volkssouveränität bedeutet mehr als einfach nur der Wille der Mehrheit.

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