Hledání svrchovanosti v Evropě a v Iráku

Pozornost světa v současnosti přitahují dvě velice odlišné snahy o ,,budování státu": americké úsilí vytvořit v Iráku životaschopné státní zřízení a ambiciózní projekt EU na přeměnu Evropy ve skutečnou ,,unii". A zatímco se mnoho otázek spojených s těmito projekty liší, v obou případech se na obzoru rýsuje velký ,,demokratický deficit". Proč tomu tak je a co bude potřeba k jeho překonání?

Svrchované režimy vyžadují politickou identitu. Pro bližší pochopení se zamysleme nad několika úvahami s ,,rousseauovskou příchutí". Jean-Jacques Rousseau byl rozporuplným géniem, který jako první formuloval mnoho základních témat modernosti, od demokracie po autenticitu, a to se všemi jejich protichůdnými požadavky. Byl to velký myslitel, ale naslouchat jeho radám je vždy katastrofální.

První moderní demokratické revoluce přesunuly moc od monarchů k ,,národu" nebo k ,,lidu". To ovšem vyžadovalo koncipovat nový druh kolektivního orgánu, který by mohl rozhodovat a jednat společně a jemuž by se dala přisoudit - v souladu s Rousseauem - ,,vůle". Tento nový celek musí mít značnou soudržnost, neboť svrchovanost lidu znamená více než pouhou vůli většiny.

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