Dean Rohrer

A Esperança Iraquiana Sobrevive

BAGDADE – Passaram dez anos desde que Saddam Hussein foi afastado do poder, depois de mais de três décadas de um governo de tirania. O sonho dos Iraquianos depois da queda de Saddam era construir um Iraque novo, próspero e democrático. Um país em paz consigo próprio e com os seus vizinhos, com uma constituição que fizesse cumprir direitos humanos básicos e o estado de direito, era o que quase todos desejavam.

Mas os Estados Unidos e os seus aliados, sem possuir uma visão coerente do futuro do Iraque, e muito menos uma política sensata para a era pós-Saddam, declararam o Iraque um país ocupado, com um administrador designado pelos EUA para governar o país, que cedo decidiu desmantelar todas as instituições de segurança, militares e de comunicação existentes. Também introduziu uma lei de des-Baathificação, que afastou, sem fundamento legal, membros do Partido Baath de posições oficiais, abrindo caminho para o sectarismo e, em última análise, para a agitação e violência sociais.

Estes lamentáveis – e em última análise desastrosos – acontecimentos criaram uma fundação instável num país estratégico no centro de uma região do mundo altamente problemática, ainda que vital. Enquanto o Iraque percorreu fases sucessivas de má gestão nos 10 anos seguintes, o país fracturou-se, desfazendo os sonhos dos Iraquianos que viram a sua pátria amada mais uma vez deslizar para o autoritarismo, com violações quase diárias da constituição. O mundo observou, aparentemente impotente para fazer algo.

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