Venezuela-Colombia migration Luis Acosta/Getty Images

如何实现可持续发展目标

麦德林——2015年9月,来自193个国家的领导人同意在2030年前实现可持续发展目标 (SDGs) ——这是有史以来推动人类发展的最雄心勃勃的计划。计划实施两年来,人们有很多理由担心计划可能会失败:迄今为止,筹得的资金很有可能满足不了计划所需,并且并非所有国家都拥有充足的数据来衡量实地进展状况。任务的艰巨性足以考验哪怕是最顽固的乐观主义者。

但我们依然有充足的理由满怀希望。我最近出访了哥伦比亚,该国终于结束了与哥伦比亚革命武装力量(FARC)长达数十年的国内冲突,并做好准备实现可持续发展目标。

在任何一个国家,实现可持续发展目标都需要政府、企业、援助机构、多边银行和民间社会的共同努力,采取灵活的方式分享知识、有效地衡量进度并认清相互关联的各种目标。哥伦比亚似乎明白这一点,并且正在采取综合的举措来发挥所有参与者的优势。

首先是政府。据哥伦比亚财政部长毛里西奥·卡德纳斯·圣玛利亚介绍,该国正在通过规划部门实现对可持续发展目标的本地化,并利用可持续发展目标框架对与哥伦比亚革命武装力量和平协议的执行、经合组织的加入申请、全国发展计划及巴黎气候协定的最终落实等相关的改革进行引导。

同时,卡德纳斯指出,哥伦比亚决策者非常重视宣传这些工作能在医疗、教育乃至就业等领域为公众带来的好处。他们意识到光靠自上而下的方法很难达到效果:要想实现可持续发展目标,需要各级政府、经济组织和社会团体感受到目标能否实现与自身利益息息相关,并理解实现这些目标将带来哪些具体的好处。

为使企业投身进来,由莫妮卡·德·格里夫领导的波哥大商会正致力提高640,000名会员对可持续发展目标的认识,并在建筑和医疗等领域开展技能培训活动。这样做的目的是在增强经济整体竞争力的同时实现可持续发展目标。

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就像波哥大商业宣传机构兼智囊哥伦比亚工业协会(ANDI)所指出的那样,好消息是企业有很强的动力来巩固和平进程的成果,尤其是在那些传统上政府服务一直被切断的偏远地区。事实上,在曾经是世界非法贩毒中心的麦德林,我所见到的大大小小的企业领导人已经将可持续发展目标纳入他们各自的供应链和商业计划。

哥伦比亚工业协会全力支持这项工作,包括提高从采矿到食品饮料等各行各业对这个问题的认识,促使他们认识到保持水资源清洁和充足对其自身利益至关重要。人们因此将对河流进行更有力的保护——这对实现水资源及卫生领域的第六项目标至关重要。

当然,在真正自下而上的过程中,与当地社团和民间团体保持密切接触至关重要。而哥伦比亚今年已经深入参与到宣传和落实可持续发展目标的工作中。在我访问期间,麦德林第13号地区的青年领袖自豪地向我介绍了在他们所在的低收入社区推行可持续发展目标的状况。

20世纪90年代,当麦德林凶杀率高居世界榜首的时候,第13号地区曾经是该是最危险的地区之一。今天,这个充满活力的地区正在受益于对公共交通(包括铛铛车和新建城市地铁站)、教育(包括图书馆和学校)及安全领域的战略投资。类似的战略投资行动需要在全国展开,以确保所有人都从中受益;实现对妇女和女童的授权是至关重要的目标之一。

市级及地区政府的领导对当地实现可持续发展目标至关重要。所有可持续发展目标都与当地及地方政府的责任息息相关,尤其关系到他们提供基本公共服务的职能。但可持续发展目标本地化过程的关键却是专注于实现使城市更加包容、安全、有活力以及能保持可持续发展的可持续发展第11项目标

该进程得到世界银行、联合国和其他国际发展伙伴机构的支持,上述机构正齐心协力为各级政府提供更加有效和协调一致的辅助服务。但成功实现可持续发展目标要求地方政府快速提高他们在关键领域的能力,比如支出控制、收入拓展、负责任的筹资行为以及可信度。

在哥伦比亚,市级开发银行FINDETER正全力推动上述学习进程,并借此增强地方政府的公共融资及其管理和策划能力。这将促使地方政府提高基础设施和服务提供方面的投资效率,进而推动实现地方发展目标。为FINDETER这样的机构授权将对实现可持续发展目标落实进程本地化,从而充分发挥各地地方政府的作用至关重要。

除能力建设外,地方政府进行智慧创新同样必不可少。在哥伦比亚,创新在麦德林控制城市犯罪和暴力的过程中发挥了至关重要的作用,提高了社会流动性,缓解了社会隔离排斥等弊病。同样的故事也发生在布卡拉曼加市成功吸引私人投资和建立伙伴关系提高自身竞争力的过程中。

哥伦比亚在实现可持续发展目标之前还有很长的路要走。但本地化的综合举措已经让哥伦比亚走上了正确的道路。其他国家应当学习哥伦比亚的榜样。

翻译:Xu Binbin

http://prosyn.org/S3LJYK7/zh;
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