Costruire Un’Economia della Cura

DAVOS – Oggi, i modelli economici tradizionali si basano su due presupposti fondamentali: in primo luogo, gli esseri umani sono attori essenzialmente egoisti che agiscono razionalmente per portare avanti la propria utilità - il cosiddetto homo economicus; d’altre parte, come intendeva suggerire la metafora di Adam Smith della “mano invisibile”, il comportamento egoistico può inavvertitamente far progredire il bene comune. Entrambe le ipotesi sono palesemente false.

Per affrontare la pressione di problemi globali come i cambiamenti climatici e le disuguaglianze, si dovrebbero ripensare i modelli economici dominanti, incorporando altri sistemi motivazionali che possono indurre comportamenti umani diversi. Modelli realistici di tal genere, basati sulla ricerca empirica in psicologia e neuroscienze, permetterebbero alle società di coltivare il loro senso della compassione e costruire un nuovo tipo di “economia della cura”, che rifletta più pienamente ciò che significa essere umani.

Gli studi neuroscientifici hanno dimostrato che le attività di cura ed i sistemi di affiliazione hanno la capacità di motivare gli esseri umani con la stessa facilità con cui possono farlo il potere e il successo, o il consumo e il desiderio. Dopo tutto, ci siamo evoluti per essere in grado di formare relazioni stabili, costruire fiducia, prenderci cura dei bambini, tutte attitudini  che richiedono capacità di compassione ed empatia. Una volta che ci si rende conto che questi sistemi motivazionali di cura sono comuni a tutti gli esseri umani - anzi, la maggior parte sono in comune con altri animali - il mondo comincia ad apparire molto diverso.

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