Aufbau einer solidarischen Wirtschaft

DAVOS – Die heute etablierten Wirtschaftsmodelle basieren auf zwei grundlegenden Annahmen: erstens, dass Menschen im Wesentlichen selbstsüchtige Wesen sind, die – als sogenannter homo economicus – aus Eigennutz rational handeln, und zweitens, dass selbstzentriertes Verhalten, wie Adam Smiths Metapher einer „unsichtbaren Hand“ suggerieren sollte, unbeabsichtigt zum Gemeinwohl beitragen könne. Beide Annahmen sind ganz offensichtlich falsch.

Um dringende globale Probleme wie den Klimawandel und die Ungleichheit in Angriff zu nehmen, müssen wir die vorherrschenden Wirtschaftsmodelle überdenken und dabei andere Motivationssysteme einbeziehen, die zu anderen menschlichen Verhaltensweisen führen können. Derartige realistische Modelle, die auf empirischen Forschungen im Bereich der Psychologie und der Neurowissenschaften beruhen, würden es Gesellschaften ermöglichen, ihr Mitgefühl zu kultivieren und eine neue Art „solidarischer Volkswirtschaften“ aufzubauen, die in umfassenderer Weise widerspiegeln, was Mensch zu sein bedeutet.

Neurowissenschaftliche Studien haben gezeigt, dass sich Menschen genauso leicht durch Fürsorge und Zugehörigkeitssysteme motivieren lassen wie durch Macht und Leistung oder Konsum und Begierden. Schließlich haben wir im Laufe unserer Entwicklung die Fähigkeit entwickelt, stabile Beziehungen einzugehen, Vertrauen aufzubauen und uns um Kinder zu kümmern, was alles eine Befähigung zu Mitgefühl und Empathie erfordert. Sobald wir uns erst einmal bewusst machen, dass diese fürsorglichen Motivationssysteme allen Menschen gemein sind – und dass wir die meisten davon tatsächlich mit anderen Tieren teilen –, sieht die Welt auf einmal ganz anders aus.

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