بناء اقتصاد رحيم

دافوس ــ إن النماذج الاقتصادية السائدة اليوم تقوم على افتراضين أساسيين: الأول أن البشر في الأساس مجموعة من الفاعلين الأنانيين الذين يتصرفون بعقلانية لتعزيز منفعتهم الخاصة ــ أو ما يسمى الإنسان الاقتصادي ــ ولكن الافتراض الثاني، وكما كان المقصود من الاستعارة التي استخدمها آدم سميث، "اليد الخفية" أن تقترح، يزعم أن السلوك الأناني القائم على المصلحة الذاتية من الممكن أن يعزز الصالح العام من دون قصد. ولكن كلا الافتراضين مضلل بوضوح.

فمن أجل معالجة مشاكل عالمية مثل تغير المناخ والتفاوت بين الناس، لابد من إعادة النظر في النماذج الاقتصادية السائدة، ودمج أنظمة تحفيزية أخرى قادرة على استحثاث سلوكيات بشرية مختلفة. ومثل هذه النماذج الواقعية، التي تقوم على بحوث تجريبية في علم النفس وعلم الأعصاب، من شأنها أن تسمح للمجتمعات بغرس الشعور بالتعاطف وبناء نوع جديد من "الاقتصادات الرحيمة" التي تعكس بشكل أكثر اكتمالاً معنى كوننا بشرا.

وقد أظهرت دراسات علم الأعصاب أن البشر يمكن تحفيزهم وتحريكهم من خلال الرعاية وأنظمة الانتماء بنفس القدر من سهولة تحفيزهم من خلال السلطة والإنجاز أو الاستهلاك والرغبة. فقد تطورنا في نهاية المطاف حتى أصبحنا قادرين على تكوين علاقات مستقرة، وبناء الثقة، ورعاية الأطفال، وكل هذا يتطلب القدرة على التراحم والتعاطف. وبمجرد أن ندرك أن أنظمة الرعاية التحفيزية هذه شائعة بين جميع البشر ــ بل إن أغلبها مشترك مع حيوانات أخرى ــ فإن العالم يبدأ في التحول إلى هيئة مختلفة تماما.

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