Cómo achicar el deficit de empleos de Estados Unidos

BERKELEY – Los datos más recientes de desempleo en Estados Unidos confirman que la economía estadounidense sigue recuperándose de la Gran Recesión de 2008-2009,  a pesar de la desaceleración que aqueja a las otras naciones del G-20. Por cierto, el ritmo del crecimiento del empleo en el sector privado, en rigor de verdad, ha sido mucho más fuerte durante esta recuperación que durante la recuperación de la recesión de 2001, y es comparable a la recuperación de la recesión de 1990-1991.

Durante los últimos 31 meses, el empleo en el sector privado ha crecido en 5,2 millones y la tasa de desempleo ha caído por debajo del 8% por primera vez en casi cuatro años. Pero la tasa de desempleo sigue estando más de dos puntos porcentuales por encima del valor a largo plazo que la mayoría de los economistas consideran normal cuando la economía está operando casi en su potencial.

Es más, la cantidad de desempleados de larga data (27 semanas o más) es aproximadamente el 40% del total -el porcentaje más bajo desde 2009, pero aun así mucho más alto que en las recesiones anteriores desde la Gran Depresión, y cerca del doble de lo que sería en un mercado laboral normal-. De modo que el mercado laboral de Estados Unidos, si bien se está recuperando, todavía está muy lejos de donde debería estar.

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