Escenas de la Guerra de las Drogas

La guerra en contra de las drogas tiene muchas formas. En Colombia está presente la versión militarizada, con batallones de soldados especialmente entrenados que zurcan las junglas y las colinas, esparciendo defoliantes desde helicópteros. Esta política de "tierra envenenada" mata a las plantas de coca, no a los campesinos que la cultivan. Muchos de ellos cruzan a El Ecuador para cultivar la coca allá.

O podemos usar un campo de amapolas y cavar un gran estanque, llenarlo con peces, plantar árboles a su alrededor, importar algunos patos y emplear a niños para mirarlos. Esto, supuestamente, erradicará un campo de amapolas, proveerá a los locales con proteína de los peces y de las aves de corral, ayudará a la reforestación y dará empleo a los niños del lugar. Eso es, al menos, lo que una Agencia Estadounidense para el Desarrollo Internacional (USAID, por sus siglas en inglés) creyó alguna vez posible al brindar fondos para un programa de erradicación de la amapola en Afganistán. Como sucede en Colombia, sin embargo, los resultados fueron constantemente efímeros.

La amapola, como la coca, es un cultivo ideal para los granjeros que tienen pequeños terrenos y pocos recursos. Necesita poco cuidado y genera ingresos seguros. La lucha en contra de la producción de amapola y/o de coca, por otro lado, es una plataforma política ideal para muchos senadores estadounidenses. Es más fácil votar en favor de gastar millones de dólares para erradicar la producción de amapola/coca que enfrentar las verdaderas fuentes de la adicción. Para entender la locura de estos quehaceres, permítanme disectar algunos esquemas anti-amapola aplicados en Afganistán, con los cuales estuve en contacto.

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