Бухгалтерский трюк Скандинавии

В то время как большинство развитых стран мира сталкивается с все возрастающими трудностями в попытках справиться с глобализацией и конкуренцией со стороны стран с дешевой рабочей силой, Дания, Финляндия, Норвегия и Швеция как будто вполне неплохо управляются с этими проблемами. Какой же секрет скрывается за успехом Скандинавии?

Если быть точным, Скандинавия, с ее средним годовым приростом ВВП в 2,2% в период с 1995 по 2005 год, отставала от остальных стран ЕС-15, для которых этот прирост составил в среднем 2,8% в год. Но в 2005 году среднегодовой прирост ВНП на душу населения был на 39% выше, чем в остальных странах ЕС, в то время как средний уровень безработицы остановился на отметке 6,7%, в сравнении с 8% для прочих стран ЕС.

Одно из объяснений хороших показателей Скандинавии в этих двух областях – смелая либерализация рынка товаров и труда в Швеции, менее щедрая раздача социальных пособий в Дании и чудо Nokia в Финляндии. Однако, хотя эти факторы, безусловно, объясняют высокий прирост ВВП, тем не менее, у низкого уровня безработицы и высокого ВВП на душу населения есть также и намного более простое объяснение: высокая доля занятости рабочей силы в госсекторе. Когда рабочие места в частном секторе не выдерживают конкуренции, работа на государство кажется легким решением проблемы занятости.

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