斯堪的那维亚国家的会计花招

世界上大多数发达国家在应付全球化的影响以及来自低收入国家的竞争中都面临著不断增长的困难。丹麦、芬兰、挪威以及瑞典好像妥善地处理了这些挑战。实际上,斯堪的那维亚国家的经济增长表现平平。1995年至2995年期间,斯堪的那维亚国家的年平均GDP增长达到2.2%,低于非斯堪的那维亚的欧元区15国平均2.8%的水平。但是它们在人均GDP和失业率方面做得却不错。斯堪的那维亚的人均GDP比其他欧盟国家高出39%,平均失业率为6.7%,欧盟其他国家则为8%。

斯堪的那维亚国家成功背后有什么秘密吗?其中的一个解释就是瑞典大胆地进行产品市场自由化,丹麦降低工资安置体系以及芬兰的诺基亚奇迹。但是,尽管这些因素可能部分地解释斯堪的那维亚国家的成功,对于低失业率以及很高的人均GDP水平还有另外一个更为明了的解释,那就是政府在劳动力中雇用了很高的份额。当私营部门的工作不再具有竞争力,政府工作好像就是让人们就业的简单办法。

确实,政府就业在斯堪的那维亚国家中的比例令人惊讶。在瑞典,政府工作占“依赖性就业”(除了自雇以外的所有就业)的33.5%,丹麦为32.9%。平均而言,斯堪的那维亚国家里国家就业的份额在整个就业中占据32.7%。与此相比,非斯堪的那维亚的欧盟15国平均为18.5%。在欧洲最大的经济体德国,政府占就业的比例只有12.2%。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/seHNVqT/zh;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now