斯堪的那维亚国家的会计花招

世界上大多数发达国家在应付全球化的影响以及来自低收入国家的竞争中都面临著不断增长的困难。丹麦、芬兰、挪威以及瑞典好像妥善地处理了这些挑战。实际上,斯堪的那维亚国家的经济增长表现平平。1995年至2995年期间,斯堪的那维亚国家的年平均GDP增长达到2.2%,低于非斯堪的那维亚的欧元区15国平均2.8%的水平。但是它们在人均GDP和失业率方面做得却不错。斯堪的那维亚的人均GDP比其他欧盟国家高出39%,平均失业率为6.7%,欧盟其他国家则为8%。

斯堪的那维亚国家成功背后有什么秘密吗?其中的一个解释就是瑞典大胆地进行产品市场自由化,丹麦降低工资安置体系以及芬兰的诺基亚奇迹。但是,尽管这些因素可能部分地解释斯堪的那维亚国家的成功,对于低失业率以及很高的人均GDP水平还有另外一个更为明了的解释,那就是政府在劳动力中雇用了很高的份额。当私营部门的工作不再具有竞争力,政府工作好像就是让人们就业的简单办法。

确实,政府就业在斯堪的那维亚国家中的比例令人惊讶。在瑞典,政府工作占“依赖性就业”(除了自雇以外的所有就业)的33.5%,丹麦为32.9%。平均而言,斯堪的那维亚国家里国家就业的份额在整个就业中占据32.7%。与此相比,非斯堪的那维亚的欧盟15国平均为18.5%。在欧洲最大的经济体德国,政府占就业的比例只有12.2%。

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