Salvar los peces del mundo

Resulta difícil no sentir pesimismo respecto del futuro de la población piscícola del mundo. Las capturas marinas mundiales, que habían aumentado rápidamente a partir de la segunda guerra mundial, dejaron de hacerlo al final del decenio de 1980 y desde entonces no han dejado de disminuir. Será difícil detener ese descenso.

La rápida reducción de las poblaciones de peces es el resultado inevitable de una refinada tecnología industrial empleada con poblaciones marinas que están menguando, a medida que aumenta la demanda, avivada por el crecimiento de la población y la renta humanas. Hasta ahora ese descenso ha quedado oculto en el mundo desarrollado gracias a productos alimenticios marinos antes no disponibles, como, por ejemplo, el salmón criado con acuicultura, e importaciones en gran escala de pescado procedente de países en desarrollo.

Pero la pesca excesiva ha llegado a ser un problema grave también en el mundo en desarrollo. Así, pues, en un futuro próximo a las pesquerías de todo el mundo les esperan cambios drásticos. Un indicio claro del problema es ``la pesca de los elementos inferiores de la cadena alimentaria marina'': la tendencia cada vez más frecuente a pescar peces y mariscos del fondo de las cadenas alimentarias marinas, con frecuencia presa de los peces mayores, que antes eran objeto de la pesca,

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