Sauver les réserves mondiales de poissons

Il est difficile de ne pas se montrer pessimiste au sujet de l'avenir des réserves mondiales de poissons. Les prises marines internationales, qui ont augmenté rapidement depuis la Deuxième guerre mondiale, se sont ralenties dans les années 80 et déclinent régulièrement depuis. Ce déclin sera difficile a enrayer.

Cette rapide diminution des stocks de poissons est le résultat inévitable d'une technologie industrielle sophistiquée lancée à la poursuite de populations marines en déclin alors que la demande augmente, alimentée par la croissance des populations humaines et des revenus. Ce déclin a été jusqu'à présent masqué dans les pays industrialisés par des produits marins qui n'étaient pas disponibles par le passé, tels que le saumon d'élevage, et par des importations massives en provenance des pays en voie de développement.

Pourtant, la surexploitation des fonds de pêche est aussi devenue un problème grave dans les pays en voie de développement. Les pêcheries à travers le monde vont subir des changements dramatiques dans les années à venir. Un signe évident du problème : la pêche s'étend maintenant à des prises de moindre importance et la tendance accrue à pêcher des poissons et coquillages en bas de la chaîne alimentaire qui forment la proie de poissons plus gros autrefois la cible des pêcheries.

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