World Bank President Jim Yong Kim with two dignitaries. Monusco Photos/Wikimedia Commons

Comment sauver la Banque mondiale ?

OXFORD – C’est dans le plus grand silence que la Banque mondiale sombre actuellement peu à peu dans l’insignifiance, à mesure que ses principaux clients payeurs se tournent de plus en plus vers d’autres prêteurs. Si l’institution entend survivre, sa direction va devoir optimiser ses procédures d’approbation des prêts, et tirer parti des atouts uniques qui la distinguent de ses concurrentes.

La Banque a suffisamment capitalisé par le passé pour devenir autofinancée. Aujourd’hui, elle se fait néanmoins de plus en plus dépendante des aides. Bien que les contributions ponctuelles de la part de riches États aient favorisé les prêts en faveur de pays pauvres, il est peu probable que ces contributions s'amplifient, étant par ailleurs possible que plusieurs cessent dès lors que certains donateurs redéployeront leurs aides budgétaires en direction de programmes pour les réfugiés.

Le problème ne réside nullement dans une absence de volonté d'emprunter de la part des économies émergentes, puisque celles-ci ont désespérément besoin de fonds pour leurs infrastructures et autres investissements. La difficulté réside davantage dans la lenteur avec laquelle la Banque gère le traitement des prêts, lenteur qui a de plus en plus tendance à faire d'elle le dernier choix envisagé par de nombreux clients potentiels.

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