El Salvador violence Leonardo Baldovinos/ZumaPress

Salvar a Centroamérica

CIUDAD DE MÉXICO – Un rápido recorrido por cuatro países centroamericanos, después de algunos años sin contacto con una región tan cercana a México y tan alejada de la fortuna, permite sentir las consecuencias del olvido internacional y del terrible legado de las guerras del siglo pasado. Sociedades entrañables, desgarradas por la pobreza, la violencia y la corrupción, impulsadas por la emigración, instaladas en una democracia inacabada pero resistente: estas y muchas más características contradictorias pueblan el paisaje de Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua, parte de lo que Neruda llamaba la delgada cintura de América.

Centroamérica es una de las regiones más inseguras del mundo, salvo por los países que no lo son: Costa Rica, desde siempre, aunque más que antes, Panamá (ajeno a la zona), y Nicaragua. Este último caso llama la atención. Después de quince años de guerra civil (antes y después de la caída de Somoza en 1979), marcados por una violencia indescriptible, las instituciones creadas por los Sandinistas durante su primer paso por el poder (de 1979 a 1990),  consolidadas por tres gobiernos sucesivos contrarios al FSLN, y de nuevo a partir de 2007 con el regreso de Daniel Ortega, han permitido un control territorial y una integridad policíaca ausentes en el resto del área. La policía nacional y el ejército, armados y entrenados por la URSS y Cuba, y desplegados en todo el país, le han ahorrado a Nicaragua la hecatombe de homicidios y extorsión que devastan, día con día, a Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador.

Estos tres países padecen niveles de violencia entre los más altos del mundo. Pandillas desagregadas en Guatemala, maras organizadas en El Salvador, y la combinación de ambas en Honduras, desuelan las ciudades y los barrios, desangran a sus juventudes y ahuyentan, lógicamente, a inversionistas y visitantes. En Honduras, según la mayoría de los analistas, las pandillas se han entreverado con el crimen organizado; éste último se ha dedicado a traer drogas, sobre todo cocaína, desde Venezuela a partir de 2005, y a reenviarlas a México y Estados Unidos. Maras, narcos locales, chavistas venezolanos y capos mexicanos trabajan de la mano.

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