Afrika spasitelná

Na počátku července se na summitu G8 ve Skotsku sejdou političtí předáci nejbohatších států, aby zvážili tíživou situaci nejchudších zemí. Prezident George W. Bush zatím vzdoruje návrhu ministerského předsedy Tonyho Blaira na zdvojnásobení pomoci Africe do roku 2010. To je tragická chyba, která plyne z neporozumění výzvám, jimž čelí Afrika, a z nepochopení amerických povinností.

Americká politika se zakládá především na představě, že Afrika se dokáže z krajní chudoby pozvednout vlastním úsilím, že rozvojová pomoc je kvůli korupci z velké části zneužívána a že Spojené státy už poskytují štědré sumy. To je mylné ve všech ohledech: Afrika je v chudobě uvězněna jako v pasti, mnohé státy jsou připravené využít pomoc účinně a přispění Ameriky je malé vzhledem k africkým potřebám, americkým slibům i americkému bohatství.

Afrika trpí třemi potížemi najednou a ty ji drží v chudobě jako v pasti. Zaprvé, Afrika nevypěstuje dostatek potravin. Na rozdíl od Asie neprošla Afrika v oblasti výroby potravin zelenou revolucí. V roce 1965 Indie produkovala průměrně 854 kilogramů pšenice na obdělaný hektar, přičemž subsaharská Afrika vypěstovala bezmála stejné množství, 773 kilogramů na hektar. V roce 2000 však už Indie vyráběla 2293 kilogramů na hektar, zatímco Afrika produkovala pouze 1118 kilogramů.

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