可拯救的非洲

将于7月初在苏格兰召开的G8峰会上,世界上最富有的国家的政治领袖们将汇聚一堂商讨最穷的国家的困境。到目前为止,布什总统一直抵制着布莱尔首相关于在2010年将对非洲的援助增加一倍的呼吁。这是一个悲剧性的错误,它源自对非洲面临的挑战和对美国自身责任的误解。

美国(对非洲)的政策是建立在非洲能够通过自身的努力摆脱极端贫困状态,由于腐败使大部分援助被滥用,以及美国已经提供了数额慷慨的援助等根深蒂固的理念之上的。但这些理念都是错误的:非洲陷入了贫困之中;许多国家都具备有效使用援助的条件;较之于非洲的需求、美国的承诺和富裕程度,美国的贡献是微不足道的。

非洲同时面临着使其陷入贫困不能自拔的三大挑战:首先,非洲不能生产足够的粮食。与亚洲不同,非洲不曾有过粮食领域的“绿色革命”。1965年,印度每公顷可用农田的平均粮食产量是854公斤,撒哈拉以南的非洲地区的产量与之相当,每公顷773公斤。但到了2000年,印度每公顷的平均粮食产量达到了2293公斤,而非洲同比却只有1118公斤。

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