Ian Timberlake/Stringer

Visi Tegas Arab Saudi untuk Diversifikasi Ekonomi

LOS ANGELES – Arab Saudi menarik perhatian dunia ketika mengumumkan sebuah agenda ambisius, disebut Visi 2030, yang bertujuan untuk merombak struktur perekonomian negaranya. Rencana tersebut diusung untuk mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap minyak sejak dahulu melalui transformasi cara-cara penerimaan negara, serta metode pengelolaan dan pengeluaran sumber dayanya yang melimpah. Visi ini ditunjang oleh rencana aksi yang mendetail, implementasi awal yang sudah melibatkan perubahan-perubahan kelembagaan yang menarik sorotan media sebagai fenomena yang berlangsung di negara yang dikenal akan kehati-hatian dan gradualisme.

Ketika katalis yang mendorong restrukturisasi ekonomi adalah dampak  merosotnya harga minyak dunia secara tajam, alasan reformasi ini sudah muncul sejak lama. Sadar akan penjualan dari minyak yang menghasilkan sebagian besar pendapatan bagi negara dan sektor publik yang menjadi pemberi kerja utama, sudah lama Arab Saudi khawatir bahwa rendahnya keragaman (diversity) ekonomi dapat mengancam keamanan finansial negaranya dalam jangka panjang.

Penurunan harga minyak lebih dari setengahnya selama 18 bulan terakhir juga disertai dengan perubahan besar pada cara kerja pasar minyak. Melalui kemajuan sumber-sumber energi non-tradisional – terutama “revolusi shale” yang hampir melipatgandakan produksi di AS hingga 10 juta barel per hari, hanya dalam empat tahun – berkurang pengaruh kartel minyak OPEC yang dipimpin Arab Saudi terhadap harga minyak. Selain itu, beberapa anggota OPEC, lagi-lagi dipimpin oleh Arab Saudi, kini semakin enggan untuk berusaha melunakkan fluktuasi harga minyak, dengan tepat mengakui bahwa “swing producer” berisiko merugi lebih lama dalam hal penguasaan pasar.

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