Ian Timberlake/Stringer

沙特阿拉伯的野望:经济多元化

洛杉矶—沙特阿拉伯宣布了一项名为《愿景2030》(Vision 2030)的宏大计划,吸引了全世界的注意。该计划旨在修正经济结构,改变沙特王国形成收入以及支出和管理其巨量资源的方式,从而降低历史上对石油的巨大依赖。《愿景2030》由许多详细的行动计划作为支撑,第一批实施的计划包括这个长期以来以谨慎和渐进著称的国家的吸引眼球的制度变革。

刺激经济结构调整的直接催化剂是国际油价的暴跌,但这些改革背后的道理早已显而易见。石油销售贡献了政府收入的大部分,公共部门成为最主要的雇主,沙特官员一直担心沙特王国经济多元化不足可能威胁到其长期金融稳定。

过去18个月中,石油价格跌去一大半,石油市场运行的方式也发生了重大变化。非传统能源资源的增长——特别是“页岩革命”让美国产量在短短四年之内几乎翻倍,达到每天一千万桶——让沙特领衔的石油卡特尔欧佩克对市场价格的影响力有所下降。此外,欧佩克的一些成员——又是以沙特阿拉伯为首——现在不再情愿尝试遏制石油价格波动,因为它们正确地认识到,“摇摆生产国”的市场份额可能受到持久影响。

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