Globe facing Iran and Asia

建立波斯湾的关系之桥

马德里—本月早些时候,伊朗和沙特阿拉伯之间的紧张局势猛然恶化,沙特处决了一位什叶派牧师,导致沙特驻德黑兰大使馆前示威者云集。这只是中东两大势力间根深蒂固的对立的最新写照。但尽管它们的敌意由来已久,却并不像有时所描绘的那样古老。考虑到共同利益,恢复合作尽管挑战重重,但也并非不可能。

树立民族身份对于这些国家来说至关重要,但它们的宗派分歧——沙特阿拉伯是阿拉伯世界逊尼派力量领头羊,伊朗则主要由什叶派组成——并非总是地区冲突因素。直到1501年,萨非王朝才将什叶派立为波斯国教,从而将自己与占领部分土地的逊尼派奥斯曼诸邻邦区分开来。在随后的两个世纪中,波斯与奥斯曼帝国——逊尼派哈里发的核心——争夺地区霸权。

1932年,沙特阿拉伯王国建立时将逊尼派伊斯兰教的一个派别——阿拉维派立为国教。尽管如此,沙特阿拉伯和伊朗仍建立了外交关系。20世纪60年代和70年代初,由于在对抗威胁到君主制度的激进运动方面存在共同利益,双方安全和政治合作有所加深。它们遏制苏联式共产主义对阿拉伯世界的蚕食,成为西方特别是美国的关键冷战盟友。

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