L’Inde rêve à l’Asie orientale

SINGAPOUR – Le 15 août, Narendra Modi a prononcé son premier discours du Jour de l'Indépendance en tant que Premier ministre. Bien qu'il ait respecté la tradition en s’adressant au pays depuis les remparts de l’historique Red Fort de Delhi, son discours a rompu avec les conventions. Renonçant à un texte écrit, Modi a improvisé pendant une heure, présentant une vision explicite pour l'Inde, y compris un modèle économique qui constitue une rupture nette avec le passé.

Depuis 1991, l'Inde a lentement changé son cadre politique et amorcé un virage par rapport à la vision socialiste de son premier Premier ministre, Jawaharlal Nehru. Cependant, pour des raisons politiques, les changements ont toujours été justifiés d'une manière presque apologétique. En effet, de nombreuses institutions de l'ère Nehru continuent d'exister – et même de prospérer.

D'un seul coup, Modi a annoncé la suppression de l'une des plus importantes de ces institutions : la puissante Commission de planification, qui avait continué à produire des « plans quinquennaux » de style soviétique et qui était restée au cœur d'un processus d’allocation des ressources centralisé. Son successeur, la Commission nationale pour le développement et la réforme, fonctionnera probablement davantage comme un groupe de réflexion – fournissant des idées et assurant la cohérence des politiques, mais sans aucun pouvoir d'allocation des ressources.

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