El lugar de Rusia en Europa

MOSCÚ – Cuando este año Rusia se anexó Crimea y comenzó a intervenir en el este de Ucrania, Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea respondieron dictando sanciones contra personas y empresas rusas. Pero para que sean una herramienta eficaz contra las ambiciones de Vladímir Putin (tema de debate actual en Occidente), deben combinar la firmeza hacia el presidente de Rusia con la apertura hacia su pueblo.

Para comprender de qué manera las sanciones pueden ayudar a contener al Kremlin, basta considerar la importancia del dinero para su ocupante. Desde el comienzo del siglo y hasta hace muy poco, Rusia estuvo inundada de petrodólares, y a medida que aumentaba el flujo de divisas, otro tanto hacían el descaro y la agresividad de Putin.

En 1999, los ingresos del gas y el petróleo aportaron 40.500 millones de dólares al PIB ruso. Con el aumento de los precios y de la producción, el aporte se acrecentó considerablemente, llegando a promediar 73.500 millones de dólares por año entre 2001 y 2004. La prosperidad creciente de Rusia envalentonó a Putin, de lo que sirve como ejemplo su decisión de arrestar y encarcelar a Mijaíl Jodorkovski, dueño de la megaempresa petrolera Yukos, en 2003.

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