Le quattro “C” dell’innovazione

PARIGI – L’innovazione è ora ampiamente riconosciuta come il prerequisito per una crescita economica sostenibile. Se i cambiamenti sono profondamente deleteri o forniscono solo modesti miglioramenti in prodotti, servizi o business model, i risultati aumentano la produttività a lungo termine di un’economia. E l’innovazione serve non solo alle economie sviluppate, ma anche ai mercati emergenti, che stanno ricevendo minori rendimenti dalla semplice trasposizione delle best practice delle economie avanzate. Anche se ogni Paese deve innovarsi, gli approcci provati e testati non funzionano per tutti i mercati.

Clayton Christensen della Harvard Business School ha identificato tre ampie forme di innovazione che rendono più forti le aziende – e infine le economie. Le aziende possono effettuare cambiamenti marginali sui prodotti esistenti, cosi diventando più competitive in un segmento di mercato esistente; possono introdurre prodotti, come gli iconici Walkman di Sony o l’iPhone di Apple, che creano nuovi segmenti di mercato; o possono sviluppare un prodotto – come l’elettricità, l’automobile o un motore di ricerca in Internet – di impatto talmente forte da rendere un intero settore o un modo di fare business quasi obsoleto.

La sfida dei governi è concepire modi per incoraggiare aziende o singoli individui ad abbracciare ancor più innovazione per incentivare la crescita economica. Gran parte delle ricerche effettuate in quest’area, influenzate dal lavoro di Michael Porter di Harvard, è stata dominata dagli “studi cluster”, che solitamente puntano sull’ottimizzazione della produttività nelle economie emergenti e nelle regione all’interno delle economie avanzate. Di conseguenza, negli ultimi due decenni, l’attenzione dei policy maker si è spostata dal tentare di capire le cosiddette economie tigri asiatiche al ricreare i cluster di successo di Silicon Valley, Route 128 di Boston, Hsinchu Park di Taiwan, Daedeok Science Town della Corea del Sud e Silicon Wadi di Israele.

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