Proteger el crecimiento de Asia

SEOUL – Los países asiáticos emergentes deberían estar orgullosos de la capacidad de resistencia de sus economías. A pesar de una situación mundial asolada por un débil crecimiento, un alto y persistente desempleo y fuertes niveles de endeudamiento, los países emergentes y en desarrollo de la región crecieron a un índice anual del 6,8% entre 2000 y 2010, apuntalando el producto global y sirviendo de apoyo a las iniciativas de recuperación.

El éxito de la región se ha basado en el dinámico crecimiento de China e India, que representan casi el 60% del PIB total del continente en términos de paridad de poder de compra. Más aún, los cambios de política económica y las reformas estructurales que se aplicaron tras la crisis financiera asiática de 1997-1998 redujeron de manera importante la vulnerabilidad de la región a los golpes financieros en la década pasada.

Sin embargo, Asia no puede caer en la autocomplacencia: sus sistemas financieros siguen siendo frágiles, sus economías padecen una alta carga de déficits fiscales y de cuenta corriente, y siguen dependiendo demasiado de las exportaciones a los mercados europeos y norteamericanos, lo que aumenta su vulnerabilidad a los impactos externos.

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