Sadate à Jérusalem, 30 ans après

TOLÈDE – Si, comme l’a dit Andrew Jackson, “un seul homme armé de courage vaut une majorité”, il y a tout juste 30 ans, en novembre 1977, le président égyptien Anouar el-Sadate était cet homme. Son ouverture pacifique envers Israël avait abasourdi le Moyen Orient. Il était, comme il l’avait dit lui-même, allé “jusqu’au bout de la Terre” (la Knesset, à Jérusalem) et, ce faisant, avait transformé radicalement la politique régionale.

À partir de ce moment, la question pour les Arabes ne fut plus de détruire Israël, mais plutôt de savoir comment trouver un compromis avec elle. Par ce spectaculaire pas en avant, Sadate apprit aux leaders arabes les réalités d’un monde en pleine mutation.

En effet, cette ouverture était le fruit d’une analyse stratégique et mesurée des forces en présence dans la région. Il était clair pour Sadate qu’Israël était une puissance nucléaire qui, en octobre 1973, s’était une fois de plus révélée invincible lors d’une guerre conventionnelle – une guerre que lui-même n’avait jamais pensé pouvoir gagner en la déclarant.

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