El problema de Putin con el gas

HOUSTON – Los observadores de Rusia están centrando la atención acertadamente en el más reciente y frágil cese el fuego en Ucrania para intentar discernir las intenciones del Presidente Vladimir Putin respecto de ese país, pero sería aconsejable que no pasaran por alto otra lucha que se está desarrollando y que tendrá profundas consecuencias a largo plazo para Europa y para la capacidad de Putin de ejercer presiones en el continente.

El pasado mes de diciembre, la gigantesca empresa del gas de Rusia, Gazprom, y una empresa turca firmaron un memorando de entendimiento para construir un gasoducto de Rusia a Turquía bajo el mar Negro. Ese nuevo “Turkish Stream” substituiría al llamado “South Stream” de Rusia a Bulgaria por el mar Negro, proyecto que el Kremlin abandonó el pasado mes de diciembre, como reacción a las sanciones impuestas por la Unión Europea después de la invasión de Ucrania y la anexión de Crimea.

El proyecto South Stream no cumplía las directivas de la UE en materia de competencia y energía y es probable que el anuncio del Turkish Stream, cuyo costo ascendería a 12.000 millones de dólares, refuerce la reputación de Rusia como socio poco fiable, lo que aceleraría la búsqueda por parte de Europa de otras fuentes de suministro. De hecho, al poner en peligro su mercado más lucrativo, Putin está dando muestras de una indiferencia casi suicida por la economía rusa, al parecer no por otro motivo que el de consolidar la enemistad con Ucrania.

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