La Guerre contre les nouveaux oligarques de Russie

L'été politique de Moscou, ensommeillé, vient d'être réveillé par une attaque du Kremlin, menée par les aides les plus proches du président Vladimir Poutine, contre le leader des oligarques russes et l'homme le plus riche du pays, Mikhaïl Khodorkovski, le principal actionnaire de la compagnie pétrolière Ioukos. Bien sûr, il n'y a là rien de nouveau. Certains éléments de la structure du pouvoir politique russe font la guerre à l'élite du monde des affaires, pour maîtriser les ambitions politiques des oligarques ou pour s'arroger certaines richesses, depuis l'effondrement de l'empire soviétique.

Ce qui est différent ici est que cette guerre, un événement qui définissait l'ère Eltsine, est censée avoir été réglée par le président Poutine dès le début de son mandat, quand il offrit un marché aux oligarques : ils gardaient leurs biens sans qu'aucune enquête ne soit faite sur l'origine de ces biens, tant qu'ils ne se mêlaient pas de politique. Pourquoi ce marché n'est-il apparemment pas respecté ? De même, il n'est pas facile de déterminer pourquoi Khodorkovski, l'oligarque qui a poussé la modernisation et la transparence de ses affaires le plus loin, se voit la cible de telles attaques ?

Pendant le premier mandat de Poutine, les « structures du pouvoir » du Kremlin (aujourd'hui dominées par les anciens copains de Poutine du KGB de Saint-Pétersbourg) ont échoué à prendre le contrôle des institutions économiques et financières clé du pays. Aucune des vraies richesses de la Russie ne leur est revenue. Pourtant, cela n'explique pas qu'ils s'en prennent à Khodorkovski plutôt qu'à tout autre homme d'affaires au passé louche.

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