El "imperio liberal" intransigente de Rusia

En todo Occidente, mucha gente se pregunta si Rusia seguirá usando gas natural como una manera de ejercer presión económica y política en Ucrania, Georgia y otros países en lo que el Kremlin considera su "exterior más inmediato". Sin embargo, usar el "arma de la energía" no es sólo una táctica: está en el corazón de la doctrina prevaleciente que guía la política exterior rusa.

La política de Rusia hacia los países post-soviéticos se basa en la doctrina de un "imperio liberal" según la cual las principales compañías estatales y privadas de Rusia deberían asumir el control de las entidades económicas clave en todos los territorios de las ex repúblicas soviéticas adquiriendo sus activos. En este contexto, debería interpretarse que la palabra "liberal" sugiere que el imperio del "nuevo sueño ruso" debería edificarse por medios puramente económicos, excluyendo toda acción enérgica contra otras naciones.

Naturalmente, el papel clave en este modelo se le asigna al suministro de energía a los países post-soviéticos. En particular, el gigante ruso de servicios públicos Gazprom utiliza los aumentos en los precios del gas como una manera de castigar a los vecinos "desobedientes". Ucrania fue castigada de esta manera por su ansiedad por integrarse a Occidente después de la Revolución Naranja. Sin embargo, tras el retorno del pro-ruso Victor Yanukovich al puesto de primer ministro ucraniano, la orientación pro-occidental del país se ha visto debilitada significativamente. De modo que no debería sorprender que Ucrania bajo Yanukovich no haya enfrentado más problemas con el suministro de gas ruso.

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