Intolérance de « l’empire libéral » russe

L’occident se demande si la Russie va continuer d’utiliser le gaz naturel comme moyen de pression économique et politique sur l’Ukraine, la Géorgie et d’autres pays de ce que le Kremlin considère comme son “étranger proche.” L’utilisation de “l’arme énergétique” n’est pas seulement une tactique : elle est au cœur de la doctrine prévalente qui guide la politique étrangère de la Russie.

La politique russe envers les pays post-soviétiques se base sur la doctrine d’un “empire libéral,” selon lequel les grandes entreprises russes publiques et privées doivent prendre le contrôle des principales entités économiques du territoire de l’ancienne Union soviétique en acquérant leurs actifs. Dans ce contexte, le mot “libéral” doit être compris dans le sens qu’il suggère que l’empire du “nouveau rêve russe” doit se bâtir avec des moyens exclusivement économiques, à l’exclusion de toute action forcée contre d’autres nations.

Naturellement, le rôle-clé de ce projet revient à la fourniture d’énergie aux pays post-soviétiques. Le géant russe du service public Gazprom, en particulier, utilise des augmentations de prix du gaz pour sanctionner les voisins “désobéissants.” Ainsi, l’Ukraine a été punie pour sa précipitation à s’intégrer à l’occident après la Révolution orange. Cependant, après le retour du prorusse Victor Ianoukovitch au poste de Premier ministre ukrainien, l’orientation pro-occidentale du pays a été fort affaiblie. Il n’est donc pas surprenant que l’Ukraine de Ianoukovitch n’ait rencontré aucun problème d’approvisionnement en gaz russe.

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