Putin en el banquillo

STANFORD – Al leer la prensa internacional, uno tiene la impresión de que los dos últimos años han sido buenos para el presidente ruso Vladimir Putin. Su campaña en Ucrania ha alcanzado en gran medida sus objetivos principales; Rusia controla Crimea y ha desestabilizado partes importantes del resto del país. La caída de los precios del petróleo ha causado graves daños a las finanzas de Rusia pero, hasta ahora, eso no parece haber afectado la popularidad de Putin.

No obstante, una larga serie de derrotas jurídicas a las que no se ha prestado mucha atención podrían tener un efecto dramático sobre la suerte de Putin. Por ejemplo, en 2014, el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos (TEDH) dictó 129 sentencias contra Rusia y en enero el Consejo de Europa privó a Rusia de sus derechos de voto debido a violaciones del derecho internacional. A medida que se acumulan, las sentencias están empezando a plantear una amenaza a la posición internacional de Rusia, su salud financiera y al propio Putin.

Las sentencias no han sido simplemente simbólicas. En julio de 2014, la Corte Permanente de Arbitraje de la Haya ordenó a Rusia el pago de 50 mil millones de dólares a los ex accionistas de la compañía petrolera Yukos por haber llevado a la empresa a la quiebra de manera ilegal para después distribuir sus activos a Rosneft, una compañía productora de propiedad del Estado. En su apogeo en 2003, Yukos tenía un valor de 30 mil millones de dólares. La cantidad es la mayor que ha concedido la corte de arbitraje en su historia y no se puede apelar. Francia y Bélgica han comenzado a incautar activos rusos para hacer cumplir la sentencia.

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