Putin auf der Anklagebank

STANFORD – Wenn man die internationale Presse liest, könnte man meinen, die letzten beiden Jahre seien für den russischen Präsidenten Wladimir Putin gute Jahre gewesen. Mit seiner Aktion in der Ukraine hat er seine Hauptziele größtenteils erreicht: Russland hat die Kontrolle der Krim an sich gerissen und große Teile des übrigen Landes destabilisiert. Die fallenden Ölpreise mögen zwar schlimme Auswirkungen auf die russischen Finanzen gehabt haben, aber bis jetzt scheint dies Putins Beliebtheit keinen Abbruch getan zu haben.

Aber eine Vielzahl wenig kommentierter gerichtlicher Niederlagen könnte das Schicksal Putins dramatisch wenden. Im Jahr 2014 beispielsweise hat der Europäische Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte (ECHR) 129 Urteile gegen Russland verhängt, und im Januar hat der Europarat dem Land für seine Verletzungen internationalen Rechts die Stimmrechte entzogen. Dieser ständig wachsende Berg von Urteilen wird zu einer Bedrohung des internationalen Ansehens und der finanziellen Gesundheit des Landes, ebenso wie für Putin selbst.

Diese Entscheidungen sind nicht nur Symbolpolitik. Im Juli 2014 hat das Ständige Schiedsgericht in Den Haag Russland dazu verurteilt, 50 Milliarden Dollar an ehemalige Aktionäre des Ölunternehmens Yukos zu zahlen. Das Land habe das Unternehmen mit illegalen Methoden in den Bankrott getrieben und seine Aktiva dem Staatsunternehmen Rosneft überschrieben. Auf seinem Höhepunkt 2003 wurde Yukos mit 30 Milliarden Dollar bewertet. Das Urteil ist das strengste, das das Schiedsgericht jemals verhängt hat, und eine Berufung dagegen ist nicht möglich. Um es durchzusetzen, haben Frankreich und Belgien damit begonnen, russische Vermögenswerte zu beschlagnahmen.

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