El obstáculo ruso de Obama

MOSCÚ – En un discurso que pronunció recientemente en Berlín, el presidente estadounidense, Barack Obama, reafirmó su compromiso con el desarme nuclear y propuso medidas para alcanzar esa meta. No obstante, Rusia ha dejado claro que no tiene previsto realizar más recortes de su arsenal nuclear en el futuro cercano.

En el discurso – pronunciado casi 50 años después de que el presidente John F. Kennedy se dirigiera a la entonces dividida ciudad para resaltar el valor del control de armamentos entre los adversarios – Obama anunció que los Estados Unidos están dispuestos a reducir hasta en una tercera parte su arsenal nuclear. También propuso reducciones significativas de las armas nucleares tácticas desplegadas en Europa. Además, hizo un llamado a la comunidad internacional para que renueve sus esfuerzos por impedir que Irán y Corea del Norte desarrollen armas nucleares; por poner en operación el Tratado de Prohibición Completa de los Ensayos Nucleares y el propuesto Tratado de Prohibición de la Producción de Material Fisionable; y por hacer más segura la energía nuclear.

Hace tres años, parecía que Rusia compartía las aspiraciones de Obama de superar las posturas nucleares de la Guerra Fría y ambos países habían acordado limitar a 1,550 sus armas desplegadas como parte del Nuevo Tratado de Reducción de Armas Estratégicas. De hecho, Rusia considera al nuevo START como un tratado "norma de oro", basado en principios fundamentales – reducciones modestas y equilibradas durante un plazo largo, medidas de verificación adecuadas pero no excesivas y reconocimiento de la relación entre ofensiva y defensa estratégica – que deberían aplicarse a todos los tratados futuros de control de armamento.

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