A barreira russa de Obama

MOSCOVO – Num discurso recente proferido em Berlim, o presidente dos EUA, Barack Obama, reafirmou o seu empenhamento relativamente ao desarmamento nuclear e propôs medidas para alcançar esse objectivo. Mas a Rússia deixou claro que não pretende aplicar novas reduções ao seu arsenal nuclear nos tempos mais próximos.

No discurso - proferido cerca de 50 anos após o presidente John F. Kennedy se ter dirigido à então dividida cidade de Berlim, destacando o valor do controlo de armamento entre adversários - Obama anunciou que os Estados Unidos estão dispostos a reduzir o seu arsenal nuclear em cerca de um terço. Propôs também importantes reduções no número de armas nucleares tácticas (ANT) instaladas na Europa. Além disso, exortou a comunidade internacional a renovar os seus esforços no sentido de evitar que o Irão e a Coreia do Norte desenvolvam armas nucleares; a pôr em vigor o Tratado de Proibição Total de Ensaios Nucleares e a proposta de Tratado de Proibição da Produção de Materiais Cindíveis e a tornar a energia nuclear mais segura.

Há três anos, a Rússia parecia partilhar a aspiração de Obama de ultrapassar a doutrina nuclear da Guerra Fria, tendo ambos os países concordando em limitar o número de armas operacionais para 1.550, como parte do Novo Tratado de Redução de Armas Estratégicas (Novo START). Na verdade, a Rússia considera que o Novo START constitui uma "norma de ouro", baseada em princípios fundamentais - reduções moderadas e equilibradas durante um largo período de tempo, medidas de verificação adequadas, mas não excessivas e reconhecimento da ligação entre ataque e defesa estratégica - que deve ser aplicada a todos os futuros tratados em matéria de controlo de armamento.

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