Obamas russische Hürde

MOSKAU – In seiner jüngsten Rede in Berlin erneuerte US-Präsident Barack Obama sein Bekenntnis zu nuklearer Abrüstung und unterbreitete Vorschläge, wie dieses Ziel erreicht werden könnte. Doch Russland stellte klar, dass es in absehbarer Zukunft keine weiteren Verringerungen seines nuklearen Arsenals plane.

Beinahe 50 Jahre nachdem sich Präsident John F. Kennedy an die damals geteilte Stadt wandte und den Wert der Rüstungskontrolle zwischen Widersachern hervorhob, erklärte Obama in seiner Rede, dass die Vereinigten Staaten bereit seien, ihr Atomwaffenarsenal um bis zu ein Drittel zu verkleinern. Desgleichen schlug er eine wesentliche Verringerung der in Europa stationierten taktischen Nuklearwaffen (TNW) vor. Ferner forderte er die internationale Gemeinschaft auf, ihre Bemühungen zu erneuern, den Iran und Nordkorea an der Entwicklung von Atomwaffen zu hindern, den umfassenden Atomteststoppvertrag sowie den vorgeschlagenen Vertrag über das Verbot der Produktion spaltbaren Materials in Kraft zu setzen und die Atomenergie sicherer zu gestalten.

Vor drei Jahren schien Russland Obamas Bestrebungen nach Überwindung der aus dem Kalten Krieg stammenden Haltung gegenüber Atomwaffen zu teilen. Beide Länder kamen überein, im Rahmen des neuen Vertrags zur Verringerung strategischer Waffen ihre stationierten Waffen auf 1.550 zu verringern. Tatsächlich betrachtet Russland diesen neuen START-Vertrag als ein „Goldstandard“-Abkommen, das auf Grundprinzipien beruht – nämlich gemäßigte und ausgewogene Verringerungen der Bestände über einen längeren Zeitraum, angemessene aber nicht exzessive Kontrollmaßnahmen sowie Anerkennung der Verbindung zwischen strategischem Angriff und strategischer Verteidigung. Überdies sei dieses Abkommen auf alle zukünftigen Verträge hinsichtlich der Rüstungskontrolle anzuwenden.

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