اتركوا روسيا لحالها

تل أبيب ــ في مقاله الشهير "X"، الذي نُشِر في عام 1947، زعم جورج ف. كينان أن المسلك العدائي الذي ينتهجه الاتحاد السوفييتي في التعامل مع الولايات المتحدة كان متصلب ويكاد يكون تغييره مستحيلا، وذلك لأنه لم يكن راجعاً إلى صراع كلاسيكي على المصالح بين قوتين عظميين، بل كانت جذوره تمتد عميقاً في النزعة القومية وانعدام الشعور بالأمان. وبوسعنا أن نقول نفس الشيء عن النزاع الحالي بين روسيا فلاديمير بوتن والغرب: فهو في صميمه صِدام بين قيم الغرب التي يُفتَرَض أنها عالمية وسعي روسيا إلى اكتساب هوية مميزة.

إن نضال أي دولة في سبيل الهوية من الممكن أن يشكل سلوكها الاستراتيجي. وتساعد الروح التبشيرية التي اتسمت بها الحضارة الأميركية في تفسير سلوكها كقوة عالمية. ويجسد انبعاث النزعة الإسلامية في جوهره سعياً إلى اكتساب هوية مُرضية من قِبَل حضارة أربكتها تحديات الحداثة. وقد أصبح تأكيد إسرائيل على هويتها اليهودية عقبة كؤود تعوق السلام مع الفلسطينيين.

وتمثل السياسة الخارجية المتجاسرة التي ينتهجها بوتن استجابة ــ مدفوعة بتقليد سياسي سلطوي، ومعتقدات مسيحية أرثوذكسية رجعية، وفخر بجغرافية روسيا الشاسعة وثرواتها الطبيعية ــ للخسارة المذِلة التي مُنيت بها الإمبراطورية. ويبدو أن بوتن، الذي يرى في هزيمة روسيا في الحرب الباردة دافعاً إلى تمجيد الجذور غير الغربية للتاريخ الروسي والتقاليد الروسية، ارتد إلى نفس القيم المحافِظة التي نشأت كاستجابة للغزو النابليوني في عام 1812، والذي أحبط جهود التحديث التي بذلها بطرس الأكبر.

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