Les conséquences mondiales de l’isolement de la Russie

PRINCETON – La crise qui affecte actuellement la Russie, et en particulier l’effondrement du rouble, révèlent toute la fragilité non seulement de l’économie russe, mais également de l’ordre international existant, ainsi que des fondations de la pensée contemporaine autour de la viabilité économique et politique. En effet, la crise russe n’était pas censée se produire – et l’isolement croissant du pays ôte à la Russie toute influence véritable sur les mécanismes actuels de gouvernance mondiale.

Après la crise de la dette en Amérique latine dans les années 1980, et la crise financière asiatique de 1997-1998 (qui a également affecté la Russie), les économies émergentes se sont résolues à trouver le moyen d’éviter que l’expérience ne se reproduise. Elles ont ainsi identifié trois démarches clés permettant de gérer les risques associés à la mondialisation financière moderne : accumuler un épais matelas de réserves susceptible d’amortir d’éventuelles attaques spéculatives ; éviter que ne se creusent d’importants déficits de la balance courante (les excédents servant à accumuler des réserves) ; veiller à maintenir de faibles dettes publiques et privées extérieures.

Les économies émergentes ont par ailleurs tiré certaines leçons de gouvernance, admettant une nécessité d’amélioration de la transparence et de lutte contre la corruption. Responsables politiques et institutions financières ont également axé considérablement leur attention sur la détermination d’indicateurs susceptibles de constituer des alertes.

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