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俄罗斯经济陷入了僵局之中。2014—2018年,GDP只了增长了1.85%,或平均每年0.4%。(克里姆林宫强迫联邦国家统计局向上修正了2016年和2017年数字。)同一时期,真实可支配收入降低了 10.7%,让13%的俄罗斯人生活在贫困中。光是在2018年,就有60万家俄罗斯公司关门停业。

在某种程度上,这些发展趋势并不令人惊奇,因为2014年俄罗斯吞并克里米亚后,西方国家实施了制裁。这些制裁导致大规模资本外逃——规模超过3 170亿美元——以及投资下降。2018年前九个月,对俄外国直接投资比2017年同期低了 11倍。

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    The End of the EU’s Brexit Bounce

    Mark Leonard

    After years of watching the United Kingdom muddle through a political crisis while enjoying an unprecedented level of unity among themselves, Europeans now must prepare for darker days. Negotiations over the future UK-EU relationship will inevitably divide Europeans and offer fodder to Euroskeptics.


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