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Dove affondano le radici della diffidenza del Medio Oriente

DURHAM – La diffidenza che pervade le società del Medio Oriente è difficile da perdere. Come confermano gli esperimenti controllati, gli arabi nutrono sostanzialmente meno fiducia negli sconosciuti, sia stranieri che nazionali, rispetto, ad esempio, agli europei. Ciò ostacola il progresso su molti fronti, dallo sviluppo delle imprese alle riforme di governo.

Le società con un basso livello di fiducia partecipano sproporzionatamente meno al commercio internazionale e attirano meno investimenti. E secondo la World Values Survey e la ricerca da loro condotta, la fiducia tra le persone nel Medio Oriente è bassa al punto di limitare le transazioni commerciali alle persone che si conoscono personalmente o tramite conoscenti comuni. A causa della mancanza di fiducia, gli arabi spesso rinunciano alle opportunità potenzialmente lucrative che potrebbero cogliere tramite lo scambio.

In modo analogo, nei loro rapporti con le istituzioni pubbliche, gli arabi tendono a cercare l’intermediazione di un individuo con cui hanno qualche sorta di relazione personale. Tra le conseguenze rientrano le disuguaglianze in ciò che le persone si aspettano da tali istituzioni. Questo compromette la loro efficienza.

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