Volný obchod, aneb když láska vyjde draho

LONDÝN – Prosincová ministerská konference Světové obchodní organizace (WTO) na Bali přinesla skrovný balíček povzbuzení pro globální obchod. Obecněji nahlíženo, multilaterální přístup WTO prokázal svou hodnotu, poněvadž předešel masivnímu zvýšení obchodních bariér, k jakému došlo v letech 1929-1930, kdy protekcionismus přispěl k prohloubení a rozšíření Velké hospodářské krize. Hlavní otázka – zda je globalizace dobrá věc a pro koho – však zůstává bez odpovědi.

Jádro globalizace – volný obchod – se opírá o teorii komparativní výhody, která pokládá mezinárodní obchod za přínosný i pro zemi, jež dokáže produkovat všechny komodity levněji (ve smyslu práce či všech zdrojů) než kterákoli jiná země.

Učebnicovým příkladem, jejž předložil laureát Nobelovy ceny Paul Samuelson, je nejlepší právník ve městě, který je zároveň nejlepším písařem v okolí. Za předpokladu, že je lepším právníkem než písařem, měl by se specializovat na právo a psaní na stroji přenechat sekretářce. Tak budou mít oba vyšší výdělky.

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