Smrt strojům?

LONDÝN – Na začátku průmyslové revoluce se textilní dělníci ve střední a severní Anglii, zejména tkalci, spontánně vzbouřili, ničili stroje a zapalovali továrny. Stěžovali si, že nově zaváděné stroje je okrádají o mzdy a práci.

Tito rebelové získali jméno a inspiraci od apokryfního Neda Ludda, údajného tkalcovského učně, který v „záchvatu vášnivosti“ roku 1779 rozmlátil dva pletací stroje. Robert Calvert o něm v roce 1985 napsal baladu: „Říkali, že Ned Ludd je vyšinutý hoch, / že chudák jedině bořit a ničit moh’.“ A dále: „‚Smrt strojům,‘ obrátil se v dílně k uším všech, / vždyť kalí nám budoucnost a šlapou po snech.“

Ludditské řádění bylo na vrcholu v letech 1811-12. Vyděšená vláda obsadila neklidné oblasti vyšším počtem vojáků, než kolik jich měl Wellington k dispozici na Pyrenejském poloostrově proti Napoleonovi. Přes sto ludditů bylo pověšeno nebo vysídleno do Austrálie. Tato opatření obnovila klid. Stroje zvítězily: luddité se v dějinách průmyslové revoluce dostali do poznámky pod čarou.

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