Model house on calculator

¿Cuánta deuda es demasiada?

LONDRES – ¿Existe un ratio "seguro" de deuda/ingreso para los hogares o de deuda/PIB para los gobiernos? En ambos casos, la respuesta es sí. Y, en ambos casos, es imposible decir exactamente cuál es ese ratio. Sin embargo, ésta se ha convertido en la cuestión macroeconómica más urgente del momento, debido no sólo a una espiral de deuda de los hogares y del gobierno desde el año 2000, sino también -y más importante- a la preocupación excesiva que está generando ahora la deuda del gobierno.

Según un informe de 2015 realizado por el McKinsey Global Institute, la deuda de los hogares en muchos países avanzados se duplicó, a más del 200% de los ingresos, entre 2000 y 2007. Desde entonces, los hogares en los países más afectados por la crisis económica de 2008-2009 se han desendeudado de alguna manera, pero el ratio de deuda de los hogares en la mayoría de los países avanzados siguió creciendo. 

El aumento significativo de la deuda gubernamental se produjo tras el colapso de 2008-2009. Por ejemplo, la deuda del gobierno británico creció de apenas por encima del 40% del PIB en 2007 al 92% hoy. Los esfuerzos persistentes por parte de los gobiernos altamente endeudados por eliminar sus déficits han hecho que los ratios de deuda aumentaran, reduciendo el PIB, como en Grecia, o retardando la recuperación, como en el Reino Unido.

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