Freelance Office Lewis Mulatero/Getty Images

变化中的独立经济

伯克利—为一位雇主全职工作已不再是发达经济体的常态。相反,数百万“独立工作者”——个体户、自由职业者或临时工——通过数字平台向众多雇主和客户出售劳动、服务和产品。

独立工作比重的上升有望带来巨大的总经济效益。独立工作通常工作时间十分灵活,它提高了劳动力参与率,增加了总工作时长,也降低了失业。但“临时经济”(gig economy)也给税收、监管和传统上通过标准雇主-雇员关系提供的社会福利与保护带来了复杂的新政策挑战。

麦肯锡全球研究所(MGI)的研究,在美国和欧盟15国有多大1.62亿人参与了某种形式的独立工作。基于六国(包括美国)8,000名工作者的代表性在线调查,麦肯锡发现10—15%的工作年龄人口依靠独立工作获得基本收入。另有10—15%——包括学生、退休者、家政工作者和传统岗位工作者——通过独立工作补充收入。

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