The new Apple headquarters Justin Sullivan/Getty Images



但在政策制定者将目光过度集中于对贸易和新技术上时,却错失了一个导致收入不均的更强力驱动因素:发源于市场高度集中,大企业实力壮大以及规制俘虏现象(regulatory capture)的地方性寻租行为。

广义上说,租金作为一种收入形式,完全来源于对资产的所有权和控制权,而不是对经济资源的创新和创业型部署。当英国经济学家约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯(John Maynard Keynes)在他1936年出版的《就业,利益和货币通论》一书中预测“食利者的消亡”时,他指的是一个除了为自身利益尽可能搜刮资本之外什么都不干的金融阶级。但在过去三十年间,金融食利者卷土重来。他们通过私人信贷创造和金融炼金术积累了巨大的收益,但这种收益又是与这类活动所产生的社会效益极不相称的。

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