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公共英雄主义的兴衰

伦敦—最近,我看了一部关于俄罗斯异见政客鲍里斯·内姆索夫(Boris Nemtsov)的纪录片《太自由的人》(The Man Who Was Too Free)。2015年,内姆索夫在克里姆林宫大门口被枪杀。20世纪90年代,内姆索夫是一位年轻英俊的政治新星,后来他拒绝向俄罗斯总统给普京的极权主义低头,而转向了反对派,自己也因此而被骚扰、羁押和杀害。影片让我想到英雄主义和勇气在现代生活中的作用越来越少,也让我思索俄罗斯的命运。

英雄主义是极端情况的产物——以战争和暴力为典型。当今西方生活方式没有极端情况,英雄主义也不再那么有价值。但英雄主义的存量在世界其他地区(包括俄罗斯)越来越多。

英雄是高贵的,也是自我毁灭的。他宁可光荣而死,也不愿猥琐而生;宁可英年早逝,也不愿带着得来容易(也容易被忘记)的荣誉苟延残喘,长命百岁。荷马史诗《伊利亚特》中的赫克托耳说“我死了,但我死得伟大。”英雄的生命注定悲剧;不朽是唯一的奖赏。

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